Iklan Adsense Otomatis

RDA as a New Face and AACR2 Model


Writer: Wahyu Febrianto
To fulfill the assignment on Non-Book cataloging
The development of information technology today has resulted in progressive changes of an information service institution, in other word library, by providing digital and non-digital collections.

The main activity of the library is to facilitate rediscovery of searching collections by presenting collection information through a cataloging process based on subject, author name, title, publisher and physical description. The process of making a card catalog is called cataloging, such as 1. Descriptive cataloging is describing physical data collection material, 2. Subject cataloging is describing the contents or subject of collection material based on the subject or the classification of certain guidelines, Lasa Hs (1997). With the presence of information technology, it certainly has an impact on cataloging from the present to the near future, Sulistya-Basuki (1993). The development of making catalog rules underwent changes that began with cataloging rules British Museum Cataloging Rules until it was replaced with an RDA (Resource Description and Access) at this time. As for the changes in the form of the catalog, it began from physical form to electronic form. However, the reality of the existing conditions in the library is still maintaining the AACR rules (Anglo-American Cataloging Rules), but some have switched to using RDA. It considers which regulations will be chosen by the library, the principle should be to make it easier, efficient, effective for both users and library managers. Therefore, it can be said that the library is an organization that is always experiencing development in every era in accordance with the concept five law from Ranganathan (1931) states that "Library is a growing organism".

Guide Anglo-American Cataloging Rules is a catalog of the library which was published in 1978 and AACR1 was published in 1967. This AACR Guideline serves as a guideline for cataloging of physical / non-digital collections, sound recording, motion picture, graphic material, computer files, three-dimensional material, realia, micron shapes and monographs types. It still reflects on the card catalog by identifying main entry, added entry and heading. Moreover, it has been modified with current technological developments and is simply dubbed AACR2 that remains relevant to the world of libraries. AACR2 has characteristics, among others generally, such as AACR2 rules can be used for public libraries which open possibility for special libraries to use them. Consequently, AACR2 is a descriptive cataloging standard for all types of print and non-print collection materials, and flexible one which AACR2 application provides some alternative rules chosen to be applied or not applied. So that the library can adjust the purpose, type, and user of the library in making policies and procedures for consistency in cataloging. In 2005 The Joint Steering Committee (JSC) for the Revision of AACR2 conducted a review and revised the first part of the AACR2 which outlined the results of the preparation of a new cataloging standard that contained guidelines and instructions for describing and accessing digital as well as analog material given the name RDA (Resources Description and Access).

Figure 1. Structure of the AACR2 Guidelines

Based on the description above, this guideline structure is carried out in AACR2 following the sequence of activities in cataloging collection materials in the library. Where the cataloging activity records bibliographic data / information, the most important activity is to provide instructions to determine access point and the shape of the header. This guideline set three levels of minimum description given. Following the first level is arguably the simplest and easiest. Generally, it is applied to special libraries that have a limited number of collections.

Figure 2. First Level Collection Description

While in the second level description, there are minimum description elements that can be presented as follows

Figure 3. Description of Second Level Collection

The third description level has more complex, complete, and complex description elements in its application; so that the library usually prefers and applies the second description level in cataloging collections. This definitely is related to entry made that can be adapted to bibliographic data standards to user needs, as well as cataloging capabilities.
Guide of Resources Description and Access was inaugurated in 2010 by several libraries in the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Germany as well as France. while the Asian countries of Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Japan and China are still in the process of preparing to implement the RDA guidelines (Resources Description and Access), Irkhamiyati (2014). IFLA developed the RDA based on a conceptual model For International Standard Bibliographic Description, Functional Requirements for Authority Data, The International Catalog of Principles, and Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Record. This guideline can bring libraries moving forward into the Real title/first responsibility statement, if it is different to or there is no the primary entry title. – Edition. – Specific data. – Publication and distribution. – Physical description. – Notes. – ISBN. Real title [statement of general material type] = parallel title: subtitle/first responsibility statement; the function of other person in charge. – Edition / responsibility statement related to the edition are. – Edition. – Specific data. – Publication and distribution. – Physical description. – (Area of the title). – Notes. – ISBN. era of information technology with the availability of instructions for cataloging digital and non-digital collections, generally referring to AACR2 which focuses on the needs of users so that the process of rediscovery of the collection is easy to find, identify, select what they need. Several advantages of using this guideline is explained as follows 1. The RDA can improve the accuracy of cataloging special format materials through online tools and all the necessary guidelines can be found to suit all types of collections to be cataloged, 2. The RDA has adaptive and flexible properties, so users make it possible to add bibliographic data listings themselves online, 3. The RDA not only displays collection information, but focuses on the description of specific library collection information resources.

Table 1. Difference between AACR2 and RDA

The indicator data above based on structure shows that some indicators have experienced changes occuring in the AACR2 cataloging guidelines towards RDA. However, the RDA is not oriented towards the described object such as AACR2 which focuses on the type of collection material, among others book, sound recording, motion picture, graphic material, computer files, threedimensional material, realia, micron shapes and monographs. In applying RDA to objects, all digital and nondigital collections are described using the FRBR conceptual model.

Table 2. Difference between AACR2 and RDA

In the explanation of the picture above related to indicators Level of Description stated that the AACR2 guidelines have eight publication areas in the application of describing library collection materials. While the RDA is opposing it; in the application of describing, the RDA uses core element which consists of flexible twelve elements that mean not all core element is always available.

Table 3. Difference between AACR2 and RDA

In this explanation, Categorization of Resources is the form of the object described. On the RDA, it looks like it is not using GMD (General Material Description) along with this, it switches into three categories viz media type, content type, carrier type have fulfilled the material of the object described.

Table 4. Difference between AACR2 and RDA

In this fourth indicator, the description of abbreviations are still used in AACR2 but the RDA tends not to use abbreviations in describing collection material. So that users can understand the description of collection materials and describe bibliography data more clearly.
Thus, after knowing the difference between AACR and RDA, it can be concluded that the library must determine the cataloging standards used whether to keep using AACR2 or RDA, so that it has consistency and uniformity in the process of managing collection materials. The principle is to give the impression of easy, effective, fast, and efficiency in the process of retrieval of information needed by the user.

Tag: AACR2, Ilmu perpustakaan, katalogisasi, Katalogisasi Non Buku, RDA
Irkhamiyati. 2014. Stick to AACR2 or Switch to RDA?. Info Persada, Vol. 12: 2 85-93
Lasa Hs. 1997. Muhammadiyah Library Cataloging Guidelines: Monographs and Periodicals. Yogyakarta: Lukman.
Ranganathan, SR. 1931. The Five laws of library science. London: Edward Goldston
Sulistyo-Basuki. 1993. Introduction to Library Science. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. .